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  Most popular articles (Since March 31, 2016)

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Squamous cell carcinoma of gingivobuccal complex: Literature, evidences and practice
Dushyant S Mandlik, Suraj S Nair, Kaustubh D Patel, Karan Gupta, Purvi Patel, Parin Patel, Nitin Sharma, Aditya Joshipura, Mitesh Patel
January-June 2018, 6(1):18-28
Gingivobuccal cancer (GBC) is the most common oral cavity cancer (OCC). Its incidence is increasing with increased use of tobacco and areca nut chewing in third world countries especially the Indian subcontinent. It comprises buccal mucosa, gingivobuccal sulcus, alveolus and retromolar area cancers. OCCs comprise 12% of all male cancers in India, 40% of these are GBCs. Certain precancerous conditions and lesions such as submucous fibrosis, leukoplakia and erythroplakia are known. In special situations such as trismus, examination and early detection becomes difficult. Computed tomography scan is an investigation of choice. Tumor node metastasis staging gives adequate information for treatment selection and prognosis. Surgery remains the mainstay of curative treatment. Due to its unique proximity to mandible and posteriorly infratemporal fossa, extent of surgery remains critical to provide cure with satisfactory functional and esthetic outcomes. Marginal mandibulectomy has consistently provided these results in carefully selected patients. More advanced cancers need segmental or hemimandibulectomy and appropriate reconstruction-preferably free microvascular bone and soft-tissue transfer. Radiotherapy is used in adjuvant setting to reduce locoregional recurrences. It can also be used as palliative modality in advance cases. The role of chemotherapy is investigational; however, criteria have been defined for its use concurrent with radiation in adjuvant postoperative settings in high-risk patients. Cure rates are as high as 85% in early stages and as low as 0%–20% in advance stages. Follow-up strategy is aimed at detection of locoregional failure initially and prevention and management of second cancers.
  28,809 1,224 4
Clinical Research

October 2016, 4(3):21-72
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The journey of ultrasound-based thyroid nodule risk stratification scoring systems: Do all roads lead to Thyroid Imaging, Reporting and Data System (TIRADS)?
Abhishek Mahajan, Tanvi Vaidya, Richa Vaish, Nilesh Sable
July-December 2017, 5(2):57-65
A number of qualitative and quantitative ultrasound (US) risk stratification systems for thyroid nodules are being used all over the world, new ones are being devised but so far, no consensus on a single system has emerged. Efforts by the worldwide medical community involved in the management of thyroid nodules are converging toward US risk stratification systems, which could provide a high-sensitivity and high-negative predictive value (NPV) for the diagnosis of clinically significant thyroid carcinomas. In this article, we review the fascinating journey of thyroid US-based thyroid imaging reporting and data system (TIRADS), the changing trends in TIRADS and emerging stratification systems to assess the risk of malignancy. Our recommendation is to develop a comprehensive system of risk stratification which incorporates clinically relevant as well as radiological risk factors and aims to accurately predict the risk of malignancy and oncologic outcome for each patient.
  9,319 813 3
Medullary carcinoma of thyroid: Case report and a review of literature
Ratna Priya, Nitish Virmani, Jyoti P Dabholkar
July-December 2016, 4(2):80-84
Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) constitutes around 5% of all thyroid cancers. It accounts for as much as 13% of all thyroid cancer-related deaths. MTC usually arises from parafollicular C-cells that normally secrete a number of peptide hormones such as calcitonin, serotonin, and vasoactive intestinal peptide; thus, it is widely accepted as a neuroendocrine tumor. Both sporadic and familial forms are seen, the sporadic form being responsible for 70% of the cases and familial form for 10-20% of the cases. Here, we present a case report of two patients with sporadic MTC. The first patient underwent total thyroidectomy with central compartment neck dissection and right lateral neck dissection, and also in the second patient, total thyroidectomy with central compartment neck dissection was done. Final histopathology came out to be medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. Postoperative serum calcitonin at 2 months following the surgery came out to be normal. Both the patients are on regular follow-up, and there has been no recurrence. Genetic screening and the evaluation of familial syndromes should always be considered in preoperative work-up in MTC patients. Early diagnosis offers a higher likelihood of cure and long-term survival. Total thyroidectomy plus central compartment neck dissection is the mainstay of treatment. All patients must be kept on regular follow-up to avoid recurrence.
  9,175 592 1
Case Series- Case Report

October 2016, 4(3):73-104
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Evolving role of immunotherapy in head-and-neck cancers: A systemic review
Raajit Chanana, Vanita Noronha, Amit Joshi, Vijay Patil, Kumar Prabhash
January-June 2018, 6(1):2-11
Head-and-neck squamous cell cancers (HNSCCs) are one of the most common cancers worldwide and account for more than half million new cases and 380,000 deaths per year. A large number of patients are diagnosed with locally advanced disease and require multimodal treatment approaches. Despite advances in radiation and surgical techniques and the use of chemotherapy and monoclonal antibodies in advanced disease, more than half of all patients recur. Tumor cells from various solid malignancies, including HNSCC, over-express PD-LI to habituate the immune checkpoint pathways to evade immune surveillance. In this review, we summarize the current literature on immunotherapeutic options that are available for HNSCC patients.
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Comparing the suppressing effect of dexmedetomidine versus lidocaine in cough during anesthesia emergence: A double-blinded randomized clinical trial
Sohaila Saidie, Hesameddin Modir, Bijan Yazdi, Esmail Moshiri, Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi
July-December 2019, 7(2):62-66
Background: Cough, laryngospasm, bronchospasm, and tachycardia are physiological responses during anesthesia emergence (AE) and endotracheal extubation. The study addressed the efficacy of dexmedetomidine (DEX) versus lidocaine (LID) in suppressing cough during AE. Materials and Methods: A double-blinded randomized clinical trial enrolled 120 eligible hospitalized patients undergoing general anesthesia. Patients randomly assigned into three groups who (1) infused 0.5 mcg/kg intravenous (IV) DEX, (2) 1.5 mg/kg IV LID, and (3) 10 mL of normal saline (PBO), 10 min before anesthesia. The laryngospasm, cough frequency (CF) (P < 0.05). Significant statistical difference was observed in Ramsay score (RS) except at, SaO2, heart rate (HR), mean blood pressure (BP), and RS was measured, and data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA), Chi-square, and ANOVA for repeated-measures tests in SPSS 20. Results: No significant difference was uncovered in BP, SaO2, frequency of laryngospasm, and duration of surgery among the groups (P > 0.05), but DEX having lower HR and CF (P < 0.05). A significant statistical difference was observed in RS except at 50 and 60 min (P < 0.05), with a lower RS in the LID and DEX than in the PBO, but both intervention groups were not different. Conclusion: Although RS in the DEX is not different from the LID, DEX demonstrates a reduced HR and CF and appears to be an appropriate drug without side effects on suppressing cough during AE.
  8,133 351 -
Total glossectomy: Technique review
Viswanath Neelakantan, Girish S Shetkar, Vikram D Kekatpure
January-June 2020, 8(1):3-7
Advanced cancers of oral tongue and recurrent/residual tumors arising from base of tongue may require total glossectomy for curative intent treatment. This procedure is considered morbid due to possibility of life threatening aspiration. This review discusses the technical nuances to reduce functional morbidity. The pull through resection technique allows a compartmental resection of these tumors with adequate margin control without a need for mandibulotomy. Selection of appropriate flap to replace bulk and laryngeal suspension are essential components of reconstruction. With application of these technical advances and adequate post-operative swallow therapy, patients undergoing total glossectomy have acceptable functional outcome.
  7,404 549 1
A clinicopathological study of oral potentially malignant disorders
Subodh Hosagadde, Jyoti Dabholkar, Nitish Virmani
January-June 2016, 4(1):29-34
Introduction: Oral cancer is the leading cause of cancer in India accounting for approximately 40% of the cancer burden. A significant number of these are preceded by precancerous lesions and conditions, together referred to as potentially malignant disorders (PMDs). It is important to screen patients for these conditions as they allow physicians to intervene early for prevention as well as early diagnosis of oral cancer. Aims: To study the demographic profile, etiology, clinical profile, and histopathology of oral PMDs. Materials and Methods: Patient evaluation was done in the outpatient department of a tertiary referral center, and those who complained of oral mucosal lesions were examined between March 2011 and March 2012. They were evaluated and treated according to their diagnosis and were observed for 1½ years, with minimum of 4 follow-ups. Results: Of the 23,380 patients who attended the outpatient department between March 2011 and March 2012, 70 (0.29% incidence) patients had oral potentially malignant lesions. Age group most commonly affected was 21–30 years (28.57%). Males were affected more than females (m = 50; f = 20). Smokeless tobacco was the most common risk factor (58.57%). Among single site lesions, buccal mucosa was most commonly affected. Based on histopathology, “leukoplakia without atypia” was the most common lesion followed by oral submucous fibrosis. Conclusions: There is a change in the trend of the age distribution of the oral potentially malignant lesions with younger generation and females being involved more and also a definite relation between tobacco-related abuses and oral lesions.
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Laser-assisted posterior cordotomy for bilateral vocal fold paralysis: Our experience
Nitish Virmani, Jyoti Dabholkar
January-June 2016, 4(1):23-28
Introduction: Bilateral vocal fold paralysis (BVFP) is a relatively uncommon cause of respiratory distress. The goals of surgical treatment are an improvement in airway size by enlarging the glottis, thus, eliminating the need for tracheostomy, while at the same time avoiding a breathy voice and aspiration. Striking this balance is extremely important. Unilateral laser-assisted posterior cordotomy provides sufficient airway at posterior glottis while preserving phonatory and protective functions of the larynx. Aims: To evaluate long-term acoustic, aerodynamic and functional results of laser-assisted unilateral posterior cordotomy in BVFP. Materials and Methods: The prospective study includes seven patients of BVFP who underwent unilateral laser-assisted posterior cordotomy. Surgical success was evaluated regarding decannulation rate, time to decannulation and need for the second procedure. Voice assessment was done using voice handicap index (VHI), grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, strain and measurement of maximum phonation time (MPT). Effect of deglutition was assessed by the presence or absence and duration of aspiration. Observations and Results: Of seven patients, four had been tracheostomized at some time during their treatment. They were successfully decannulated within an average of 1 week after the surgery. The postoperative respiratory function was adequate for more than routine activity in all patients. None of the patients required a second procedure. VHI values demonstrated that while four patients had no/mild degree of voice handicap, two had moderate and one had a severe degree of handicap. While five patients had a normal MPT, two had a reduced MPT. Perceptual rating by a speech pathologist revealed that while two patients had mild dysphonia, four had moderate dysphonia. None of the patients complained of aspiration postoperatively. Conclusion: Unilateral CO2laser posterior cordotomy is a simple, safe and short surgical technique that creates a satisfactory glottic airway to improve respiration while avoiding aspiration and having minimal to the mild effect on the voice.
  7,327 485 3
A century of progress in head and neck cancer
Jatin P Shah
July-December 2016, 4(2):50-58
  6,428 909 3
Intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma in primary hyperparathyroidism: Are we overdiagnosing? case series and learning outcomes
Alka Ashmita Singhal, Sanjay Saran Baijal, Deepak Sarin, Sowrabh Kumar Arora, Ambrish Mithal, Dheeraj Gautam, Naman Sharma
January-June 2018, 6(1):48-53
Intrathyroidal parathyroid (IP) adenoma as a cause of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) presents a diagnostic challenge in localization and differentiating it from a thyroid nodule. We report here three distinct cases of PHPT where preoperative imaging findings were compared with surgical and histopathological findings. Case 1 was a typical true IP adenoma, as diagnosed by preoperative sestamibi and ultrasound, and confirmed at surgery and subsequent histopathology. Case 2 was diagnosed by sestamibi and ultrasound as bilateral lower pole IP adenomas which turned out to be thyroid nodules at surgery. Postsurgery, the serum PTH levels dropped only partially and PHPT persisted. Revision surgery was performed, and a right inferior parathyroid adenoma was removed, after which PTH was normalized. Case 3 had a preoperative sestamibi diagnosis of left inferior parathyroid. Preoperative ultrasound suggested a left thyroid nodule/IP along with an associated contralateral right inferior parathyroid nodule. Surgery and subsequent histopathology confirmed left follicular adenoma and right inferior parathyroid adenoma. We discuss the limitations of preoperative imaging modalities in these cases along with their learning outcomes. It is very essential that all the involved clinicians, radiologists, and surgeons are well aware of the diagnostic features and pitfalls associated with IPs so as to enable a correct diagnosis and appropriate surgical or medical management.
  6,700 431 1
Transoral surgery in early-stage laryngeal cancer
Somiah Siddiq, Vinidh Paleri
January-June 2017, 5(1):3-12
Single modality treatment is advocated for early laryngeal cancer, providing superior functional outcome and crucially options for further treatment in the event of local tumor recurrence. Options include surgery (mainly in the form of endolaryngeal techniques) or radiotherapy. With no prospective direct randomized controlled trials available, the choice of treatment following multidisciplinary discussion rests on a combination of tumor, patient and local expertise factors, with ultimately patient choice taking precedence. However, recently published data support the case for primary surgery on the basis of both organ preservation and health economics in early laryngeal cancer. We present an evidence-based review of the current literature in the management of primary and recurrent early laryngeal cancer.
  6,294 660 1
A retrospective analysis of 200 axillary route thyroidectomy cases
Padmakumar Ramakrishnapillai, Madhukara Pai, Mary Varghese, Farish Shams, PG Shaji, TS Anithadevi, Subin Thomas
July-December 2016, 4(2):75-79
Background: Thyroid disorders are common in women. The surgical solution available in most places is open thyroidectomy, which can ultimately lead to unsightly scar formation. This can be cosmetically unappealing, especially for women. The endoscopic thyroidectomy is a very good alternative to the traditional open thyroidectomy. It gives excellent cosmetic outcomes, especially when done with an axillary approach, without compromising safety. Methodology: This is a retrospective study conducted on 200 patients who underwent endoscopic thyroidectomy at Sunrise Group of Hospitals, Kochi and Dubai, from July 2013 to March 2016. The procedures performed were total thyroidectomy and hemithyroidectomy. The operation time, thyroid gland/nodule size, duration of hospital stay, and complications were considered for the outcome assessment. Results: A total of 200 endoscopic thyroidectomies were done. The mean age was 38 years, and the mean size of the thyroid was 9.19 ± 3.45 cm. The average time for hemithyroidectomy was 90 ± 12 min, and average time for total thyroidectomy was 150 ± 10 min. Forty-two patients underwent endoscopic hemithyroidectomy, whereas 158 patients underwent endoscopic total thyroidectomy. The histopathological reports revealed that there were 70 adenomas, 41 colloid nodules, 30 thyrotoxicosis, 27 thyroiditis, 26 carcinoma, and 6 Hurthle cell neoplasm cases. Complications, such as permanent hypoparathyroidism, nerve injury, and mortality, were not seen in the study population. Conclusion: Endoscopic thyroidectomy offers excellent cosmetic outcomes with no additional untoward effects. This procedure can be utilized for thyroids as large as 12 cm. All pathologies, including malignancies, can be safely dealt by expert endoscopic surgeon.
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Molecular biology of head and neck cancers
Deepa Philip, Vanita Noronha, Amit Joshi, Vijay Patil, Anant Ramaswamy, Anuradha Chougule, Kumar Prabhash
January-June 2016, 4(1):16-22
Head and Neck cancers constitute a real challenge for oncologists across the globe, with one person dying every hour of every day. It can distort and disfigure the face, strip away the voice and rob one of his basic abilities to eat, drink and swallow. The psychosocial impact can be extremely devastating. From previously being considered a homogenous entity, it is now a well recognized fact that Head and Neck cancer is rightly called “Head and neck cancers” in view of their genetic and molecular heterogeneity despite sharing histological and etiological homogeneity. The present review discusses recent insights as well as established principles of the molecular biology of Head and Neck Cancers.
  5,609 841 -
Incidence of occult metastasis in clinically N0 oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma and its association with tumor staging, thickness, and differentiation
Neena Chaudhary, Rajeev Kumar Verma, Usha Agarwal, Shashank Gupta, Shweta Jaitly
July-December 2017, 5(2):75-78
Introduction: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most frequent head and neck cancer. The metastatic dissemination of these tumours usually occurs through the lymphatic system. The presence of occult lymph node metastasis is the most important prognostic factor. The high incidence of occult lymph nodal metastasis is a strong argument for the indication of elective neck dissection. However, there is a high percentage of patients who do not have metastasis in the pathological exam (pN0). Taking a homogenous group of patients all of whom received primary surgical treatment, at the same institution without prior radiotherapy or chemotherapy, applying stringent patient selection criteria, and standard pathological evaluation methods across the group, this study aims to establish predictors of cervical node metastasis in squamous carcinomas of the oral tongue. Result: During the study period, a total of 112 patients (98 males and 14 females; Mean age 49.7 years (range 15-70)) underwent resection of the primary tumor with SOND for N0 lymph node status of neck. A total of 1489 lymph nodes were analyzed in this study. Occult metastasis was found in 26 patients (23.2%). T-stage 4 was found to be a statistically significant predictor of occult lymph node metastasis in a cN0 neck. (95% CI, p-value 0.02). There was no correlation between gender, tumor thickness, and tumor differentiation and occurrence of occult metastasis. Discussion: Controversy exists over management of the neck in patients with cN0 oral SCC. As is evident there is no consistent statistically significant factor that can be attributed as a predictor of occult metastasis in head and neck cancer of the oral cavity. The search to identify reliable and accurate predictor(s) of occult metastases, or approaches to the management of patients with cN0 oral SCC, must continue. In absence of such predictors, keeping the high incidence of occult metastasis in mind, we recommend END in all cases of N0 OSCC.
  5,925 503 4
Carcinoma cuniculatum of the oral cavity: A diagnostic dilemma
Arya Ajith, Narayana Subramaniam, Deepak Balasubramanian, Krishnakumar Thankappan, Subramania Iyer
January-June 2018, 6(1):54-56
Carcinoma cuniculatum is a distinct but rare subtype of squamous cell carcinoma, often creating a diagnostic dilemma. Although it is associated with a good prognosis, it is locally aggressive and requires complete treatment. Distinguishing it from similar conditions is crucial to its management. We present our experience of two cases of carcinoma cuniculatum of the oral cavity and a review of literature.
  5,882 507 3
Changing trends in antibiotic prophylaxis in head and neck surgery: Is short-term prophylaxis feasible?
Naresh K Panda, Muhammed Shafi, Sourabha K Patro, Jaimanti Bakshi, Roshan Kumar Verma
January-June 2016, 4(1):42-48
Background: The duration and dosage of prophylactic antibiotics vary substantially among surgeons. This study explored the outcome and efficiency of short-term antibiotic prophylaxis in head and neck procedures. Methods: One hundred and forty-three patients undergoing various head and neck surgical procedures were included. They were categorized into two groups, clean (Group C) and clean-contaminated (Group CC). They received short-term prophylaxis with intravenous (IV) antibiotics. Group C patients received single dose IV antibiotic at induction and Group CC received antibiotic for 3 days. The scoring methods such as American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) score, National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) score, and additional treatment, discharge, erythema, purulent discharge, separation of deep tissue, isolation of bacteria and stay (ASEPSIS) were used. Scoring methods were used to analyze the risk factors and complications up to a period of 4 weeks postoperatively. Results: There were 83 patients in Group C and 60 patients in Group CC. Parameters such as body weight, body mass index (BMI), biochemical and hematological parameters along with surgical details, and postoperative wound assessment were analyzed. A significant association of surgical site infection (SSI) with BMI, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and tobacco usage was noted along with a high incidence of SSI in surgical procedures involving the larynx. There was no significant relationship with ASA score and NNIS score. Conclusion: Short-term antibiotic prophylaxis in clean and clean-contaminated cases is feasible and effective as long-term prophylaxis. Correction of anemia, hypoalbuminemia, weight reduction, and avoidance of tobacco can prevent SSIs.
  5,793 577 3
Chemoprevention in head and neck cancer
Joydeep Ghosh, Anant Ramamswamy, Vijay Patil, Amit Joshi, Vanita Noronha, Kumar Prabhash
January-June 2016, 4(1):4-11
Head and neck cancer comprises of a large section of our malignancies. The locations of the organs allows us to have an early diagnosis, and consequently, early treatment. However, even with the best possible treatment, the outcomes are quite dismal in many cases. So , newer strategies targeting prevention of the development of head and neck cancers are required. Epidemiological studies have given us a fair idea about the role of environmental factors as well as many precancerous lesions that predate the development of invasive cancers. There has been multiple efforts the decipher the pathways leading to the evolution of normal tissue to premalignant lesions to invasive carcinomas. Also, there have been many attempts to halt the process at various stages to prevent the development of the final step. This review focuses on the risk factors in brief, the pathways as well as biomarkers, and the agents that have been tested for prevention of head and neck malignancies.
  5,737 611 -
Eagle's Syndrome: Our experiences in a tertiary care teaching hospital of Eastern India
Santosh Kumar Swain, Asirbad Jena, Mahesh Chandra Sahu, Anwesha Banerjee
July-December 2017, 5(2):66-70
Introduction: Eagle's syndrome (ES) is defined as the elongation of styloid process or the calcification of the stylohyoid ligament causing clinical manifestations such as throat pain, odynophagia, dysphagia, headache, and irradiation of pain into the ear and neck pain. The clinician misses the diagnosis due to nonspecific clinical presentations. Objective: To study detail clinical profile and management of the patients with ES in a tertiary care teaching hospital of eastern India. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one patients with ES were included in our study. Diagnosis of the ES was based on clinical presentations and three-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT scan). All were treated through transoral approach under general anesthesia. Results: 3D CT is very useful for preoperative estimation of the styloid process length. There were no postoperative complications encountered. Chief symptoms of the patients were regressed after surgery. Conclusion: Clinical presentations and three dimensional CT are important for exact diagnosis of ES. The transoral approach is a safe and definitive treatment of ES.
  5,930 359 3
Editor's Message
Jyoti Dabholkar
October 2016, 4(3):0-0
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Laryngeal transplant: The future?
Varun Jitendra Dave
January-June 2016, 4(1):12-15
There is very less literature about laryngeal transplant, particularly in India. In the past, laryngeal transplant along with other “nonvital” organ transplant had been considered unethical as the risks associated with chronic immunosuppression outweighed the gains of the transplanted organ. However, with the advent of newer immunomodulatory drugs and drug delivery systems, the risks of immunosuppression are considerably low. This has prompted the growth and expansion of nonvital organ transplant which was evident by the first hand transplant performed in India. In the following discussion, the success of the two laryngeal transplants performed till date and the need for optimism in this field is outlaid. This article is directed toward all the ear-nose-throat and head-neck surgeons who treat laryngeal cancer on a regular basis.
  5,392 462 -
Predictors of postoperative pneumonia in patients undergoing oral cancer resections and its management
Ridhi Sood, Jerry Paul, Sunil Rajan, Sobha Subramanian, Deepak Balasubramanian, Sivakumar Vidhyadharan, Krishnakumar Thankappan, Subramania Iyer
July-December 2018, 6(2):69-72
Background: Head-and-neck resections carry a major risk of postoperative pulmonary complications. It adds to morbidity and mortality, adversely affects recovery, and contributes to financial burden. The objective of this study is to find out the incidence of pneumonia and the utility of our institution protocol in the prevention of postoperative pneumonia (POP). Materials and Methods: Retrospective study including patients undergoing oral cavity resection at the tertiary hospital from August 2017 to July 2018. The patients were analyzed in terms of demographic profile, operative findings, and postoperative course. Diagnosis of pneumonia was established by intensivist based on symptoms and signs. Results: Incidence of pneumonia was 5.79% (15 out of 239). Average age of patients with pneumonia was 64.8 years and 60% were male. All had multiple comorbidities. Average preoperative serum albumin was 3.49. POP was seen commonly in patients who had composite resections involving alveolar arch and tongue (26.67%). Majority had reconstruction in the form of free flap (46.6%) with fibula flap being most common. Average intraoperative time was 10.5 h. The most common isolate was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (40%), followed by Klebsiella pneumonia (33.3%). About 26% were multidrug-resistant strains. Average hospital stay was found to be 30.6 days in patients of pneumonia. Conclusions: Data from our cohort indicated a much lower incidence compared to published literature. We attribute this to our routine practice of intensive care unit care in the immediate postoperative setting with a nursing care ratio of 1:1, postoperative early mobilization, frequent tracheal toileting, chest physiotherapy, early diagnosis of pneumonia, and prompt initiation of treatment.
  5,298 478 -
A rare case of synovial sarcoma of the neck with review of literature
Jyoti Dabholkar, Ameya Bihani
January-June 2017, 5(1):34-37
Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a malignant tumor of pluripotent/undifferentiated cells. Only 3% of all SSs are found in the neck. We present a case of a 16-year-old male presenting neck swelling for 6 months which was diagnosed as biphasic SS of the neck on fine-needle aspiration cytology. Complete surgical resection with lateral partial pharyngectomy was done followed by postoperative radiotherapy. We also present the recent reviews on diagnosis and management on SS of head and neck.
  5,381 373 -
Flaps based on facial arteriovenous system for the reconstruction of head-and-neck cancer defects

July-December 2020, 8(2):80-86
Facial artery is a branch of the external carotid system extending from the upper neck to the nasion. Various flaps are described in the literature based on the facial artery and vein in the neck and face to reconstruct the head-and-neck cancer defects, either superiorly based or inferiorly based. This article summarizes the flaps and their variations based on the facial arteriovenous system. The flap harvest techniques, the indications, advantages and the limitations of the nasolabial flap, facial artery myomucosal flap, and submental flap are described, with appropriate case demonstrations. Variations of the flaps are also discussed.
  5,384 273 -